Berlin: Tempelhof Airport

Berlin Tempelhof Central Airport TCA

For historical information only, do not use for navigation or aviation purposes!
The history of the Cold War airfields: Berlin-Tempelhof Airport
by Bert Kondruss

During the Cold War

Usage

US military aerodrome and airport

In the 1940s

Situation

Tempelhof Airfield on a map from 1947
Tempelhof Airfield on a map from 1947 - (Source: DoD)

Overview

Tempelhof Airport on a US map at the end of the war in July 1945
Tempelhof Airport on a US map at the end of the war in July 1945 - (Source: DoD)
Airfield map from September 1948, when the airlift was in progress.
Map from September 1948, when the airlift was in progress. - In Tempelhof there was a paved runway, the later northern runway. The southern runway is under construction.

Images

After 1945

Aerial picture winter 1947/1948 (Photo: Berliner Flughäfen / Archiv)
Approach from the east over the cemetery in 1948 (Photo: Berliner Flughäfen / Archiv)

In the 1950s

Situation

Map of the airspace around Berlin in 1956
Map of the airspace around Berlin in 1956

Overview

Berlin Tempelhof Central Airport on a US map from 1952
Berlin Tempelhof Central Airport on a US map from 1952 - The center runway 08C/26C used during the airlift is still shown. The runways still have the identifiers 08/26, only later they get 09/27.
Berlin Tempelhof in 1954
Berlin Tempelhof in 1954 - Meanwhile, the central runway 08C/26C is marked as unusable. In the northwest is now a radio beacon DLB.
Aerial picture 1953 Berlin Tempelhof Airport
Aerial picture 1953 - Source: Geoportal Berlin
Aerial picture of Airport building
Enlargement: Airport building
Aerial picture of the old airfield
Enlargement: Old airfield
Aerial picture of runways 08L, 08C and 08R
Enlargement: Beginning of runways 08L, 08C and 08R
Aerial picture of runways 26L, 26C and 26R
Enlargement: Beginning of runways 26L, 26C and 26R
Aerial picture of southwestern take-off head
Enlargement: Southwestern take-off head
Aerial picture of southeastern take-off head
Enlargement: Southeastern take-off head

Images

Pictures from 1957

Source: Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, Staatsarchiv Freiburg, Fotograf: Willy Pragher
Terminal building
Terminal building
Airbridge memorial
Airbridge memorial
Building
Building
Radar
Radar
C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) of Pan American World Airways (PAA) N88903, N90902
Two C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) of Pan American World Airways (PAA) - In the foreground N88903 "Clipper Hamburg", in the background N90902 "Clipper Köln-Bonn".
C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) of Pan American World Airways (PAA) N90902
C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) of Pan American World Airways (PAA) - N90902 "Clipper Köln-Bonn"
C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) of Pan American World Airways (PAA)
C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) of Pan American World Airways (PAA) N88903 "Clipper Hamburg", - In the background Air France DC-4 F-BBDJ
PAA N88903
PAA N88903 "Clipper Hamburg" and Air France DC-4 F-BBDJ
Air France DC-4 F-BBDJ
Air France DC-4 F-BBDJ
PAA C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) N88934
PAA C-54 Skymaster (Douglas DC-4) N88934 "Clipper Berlin"
Vickers Viscount of British European Airways
Vickers Viscount of British European Airways
Vickers Viscount of British European Airways
Vickers Viscount of British European Airways
Covered gate
Covered gate
Gate
Gate
Gate
Gate

Pictures from 1958

December 1958: Arrival of Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer at Berlin Tempelhof Airport
December 1958: Arrival of Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer at Berlin Tempelhof Airport in an US Air Force aircraft - Source: ETH-Bibliothek Zürich, Bildarchiv / Fotograf: Comet Photo AG (Zürich)

In the 1960s

Situation

Berlin Tempelhof Airport on a US map from 1969
Berlin Tempelhof Airport on a US map from 1969 - (Source: Earth Sciences and Map Library, University of California, Berkeley)

In the 1950s

Situation

Berlin Tempelhof Airport on a map of the US Department of Defense 1972
Former Berlin Tempelhof Airport on a map of the US Department of Defense from 1972 - (ONC E-2 (1972), Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas at Austin /PCL MC/)

In the 1980s and early 1990s

Overview

Map of Berlin Tempelhof Airport, Germany

Runways, taxiways

(1)Runway 09R/27L
(2)Runway 09L/27R
(3)Apron
(4)Helicopter lanes
(5)Old take-off platforms

Installations

(11)Main Building
(12)Remains of the old terminal building
(13)Cargo Hangar
(14)Railway Siding

Aeronautical installations

ALSApproach Lights
AN/FPS-117Radar Tower
ASRAirport Surveillance Radar
DVORVHF Omindirectional Radio Range navigation station
GPILS Glide Path
(H)Helipad
LLZILS Localizer
METMeteorological Station
TACANTactical Air Navigation - Military navigation system
TWRControl Tower

Runways

During the 1980s:
  • 09R/27L: 2116 m x 42,50 m
  • 09L/27R: 2093 x 42,50 m

Radio beacons

Data for the year 1985:
  • DVORTAC: 114.1 "TOF", ATIS
  • VOT: 108.2 "Dots"
  • Havel DVOR/DME: 113.3 "HVL"
  • Lubars NDB: 413.5 "DLS"
  • ILS27L: 109.5 "IDLB"
  • Planter NDB: 327 "DIP", 270°, 1.9 NM to THR 27L
  • ILS09R: 109.7 "IDBR"
  • Helmholtz NDB: 347 "DBR", 090°, 3.59 NM to THR 09R

Radio communication

During the 1980s:
  • Berlin Center 120.85, 353.8 South Corridor
  • Berlin Center 125.3, 293.8 Center and North Corridor
  • Berlin Center 125.5, 134.65
  • Berlin Approach 120.95, 125.8, 132.65, 362.3
  • Berlin Approach 120.7, 345.3 PAR 09R, 27L
  • Berlin Departure 119.3, 372.0
  • ATIS 114.1 TOF VORTAC
  • Tempelhof Tower 118.1, 337.3, 356.0, 358.0
  • Tempelhof Ground 121.9, 356.0
  • Base Ops 386.9
  • Berlin Radio 3479, 5661, 6598, 10084 SELCAL

Units

1990: US Army Aviation Detachment: 6 UH-1H, 1 C-12C, 2 UV-20A; 7350th ABG

Images

The 1980s

Aerial view March 1980
Aerial view March 1980 - (Source: Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg)
Aerial picture of Berlin Tempelhof Central Airport
Aerial picture from 14oct1983 (Source: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
Main building of Tempelhof Central Airport
Main Building June 1st, 1983 (Source: DoD, photographer: MASTER SERGEANT DON SUTHERLAND)
Relicts of the old Tempelhof airport
Relicts of the old airport 1983 (Source: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
US Air Force C-141 Starlifter at Berlin Tempelhof Airport
Apron - C-141B Starlifter of the US Air Force on the apron 01jun1983 (Source: DoD, MSGT DON SUTHERLAND)
Southwestern take-off platform
Southwestern take-off platform - Part of an aerial picture from 1983 (Source: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
"Welcome to Tempelhof Central Airport" (1984)
"US Army Aviation Section - Berlin Brigade - Freedom City"
US Army Bell UH-1 Iroquois
US Army Bell UH-1 Iroquois "Freedom City" (1984)
Pilatus UV-20 Chiricahua of the US Army in Berlin
One of the two Pilatus UV-20 Chiricahua of the US Army in Berlin
Beech U-21A King Air 66-18010
Beech U-21A King Air 66-18010 "Freedom City" (1984)
United States Air Force - Tempelhof Central Airport
Sign at the gate (1987) (Source: DoD, MSGT PAT NUGENT)
Landing of a C-47
Runway 27L - Landing of a C-47 on runway 27L in 1988.
Helicopter lanes
Helicopter lanes - On this picture, all three helicopter lanes can be seen. The aircraft is a C-130E from the 37th Tactical Airlift Squadron on the 14oct1988, using the low altitude parachute extraction system (LAPES) - Source: DoD, photographer MSGT PATRICK NUGENT
Aerial view from the open house 1989 (Photo: Berliner Flughäfen / Archiv)

Radar Equipment

Height Finder
Removal of the height finder
Removing the height finder in october 1984 (Photo: DoD, RAMI HARCSZTARK)
AN/FPS-117
Radar tower in 1984.
The radar tower in 1984. The radom shows a segmented structure, which is different today.
Exchange of the radome
Short before exchanging the radom?
Aerodrome Surveillance Radar (ASR)
Aerodrome Surveillance Radar ASR at Tempelhof Airport
The ASR in 1983 (Photo: DoD, Thomas Farr)
Aerodrome Surveillance Radar ASR 1987
ASR - The Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) in 1987 (Source: DoD)
Empty radar tower
The empty radar tower in 2004 (Photo: Berliner Flughäfen)

Berlin Air Route Traffic Control Center (BARTCC) und Tempelhof Automated System (TAS)

Air traffic approach controller at the Tempelhof Central Airport, Germany
BARTCC control room (01 September 1982) - "TSGT James Elmore of the 1946th Communication Squadron is an air traffic approach controller at the Tempelhof Central Airport." (Photo: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
Berlin Air Route Traffic Control Center BARTCC control room (1986)
BARTCC control room (01 January 1986) - (Photo: DoD, CHIEF MASTER SGT. SUTHERLAND)
BARTCC control room (1987)
(Photo: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
Radar console GPN-22
Radar console GPN-22 (Photo: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
Grafical display of the Tempelhof Automated System TAS
Grafical display of the Tempelhof Automated System TAS (Photo: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
Airport information, radio frequencies and radio navigation aids
Airport information, radio frequencies and radio navigation aids (Photo: DoD, THOMAS FARR)

Radar Pictures

Radar screen Berlin Tempelhof
Radar screen either from March 25th, 1986 or April 1st, 1987, probably from the AN/FPS-117 (Source: DoD, THOMAS FARR)
Graphic with explanations of the radar screen
Graphic with explanations
Airfields
- BerlinBerlin: RAF Gatow Airfield, Berlin: Tegel Airport, Tempelhof
- East GermanySchönefeld: Airport, Brandenburg: Briest Air Base, Mahlwinkel: Airbase, Oranienburg: Airbase, Schönhauser Damm: Airfield, Zerbst: Air Base
Radio beacons
- BerlinHVL=Havel, DLS=Lübars, TGL=Tegel, TOF=Tempelhof
- Federal RepublicBKD=Brünkendorf, HLZ=Hehlingen
- East GermanyNUF=Nunsdorf, RSF=Reinsdorf
Airways
- CorridorsNorth Route 1, North Route 2, Center Route 1, Center Route 2, South Route 1, South Route 2, Havel Transition
- Federal RepublicB 29, B 29 S, B 29 E, G 9, G 9 N, G 9 S
- East GermanyB 50
Reporting Points
- CorridorsAKENA, ALANU, ELBEN, GUSEN, KIRIS, KONEN, LIKTI, LINDU, NIDAR, NUVEN, RINOV, ROSLA, VELTE
The names of the reporting points are derived from nearby locations. Up to the general switch to 5-letter-names, the full name was used, e.g. KONEN=KONNERN, RINOV=RHINOW, VELTE=VELTEN
Flights
AF123 With northwesterly heading in the North Corridor, short in front of the Brunkendorf beacon. "85" could be the height (Flight level FL85, in the corridors, flight levels ending on 5 were used, probably to be able to use the maximum agreed level FL95).
PA725Center Corridor, "86"=Height FL86?, "37"=Ground speed 370 kt?, "HSAV" (?) unknownr, "D" unknown. Die white line to the HLZ beacon is described below.
???Target in the Center Corridor, flight ID unreadable on the original picture.
6227In the area of the South Corridor, near the reporting point ROSLA, probably an east german or soviet aircraft. If "156" is the altitude FL156, then the target would be well above the maximum agreed altitude for a corridor. "6227" could be the transponder code. The code area "62" was assigned to east germany, but mainly used for international flights that began in east germany; so the westerly heading of this target does not match to it.
044This target moves parallel to the corridor in southwestern direction. The length of the line for the projected flight path indicates high speed.
Others
Data BlockThe data area is not fully readable on the orginal picture. "1.:14:23" looks like the time, "CI:D" unknown, "OP:..." unknown, "RS:..." unknown, "BRG/RNG: ..." direction and distance for the measurement tool, it begins at the target "PA725" and ends at the HLZ beacon, so it should show direction and distance from the target to HLZ. "BP:29.92" looks like "Barometric Pressure Setting" (in inch), maybe to adjust the measured heights from this 3D radar to the barometric measured altitudes; "SR" unknown, "3D" unknown, "DB" unknown
COAST LISTThe COAST LIST shows targets which disappeared from the radar. Here it is empty.
StarsIn each corridor, in a distance of about 35 NM, there are two stars shown. They are positioned approximately on the flying routes, but in two cases they are quite away (see southwest of Briest airfield). Purpose unknown.
CirclesIn the area of the Berlin Control Zone, there are three circles visible. They match to the high radio masts of Zehlendorf (east of Oranienburg), Frohnau and TV tower. In the lower left corner of the picture, there is another circle partly visible. It could belong to the Brocken mountain.
White dotsIn a distance of about 90 NM, north of the southern corridor, there is a white dot shown. It is the area of Quedlinburg. The purpose is unknown. Another white dot can be seen west-northwest of HLZ beacon. Purpose unknown. And there are some dots in the Berlin Control Zone, which are also unclear to me.
The screens looks empty, probably because no primary radar information is shown. Therefor, only targets with an active transponder are visible.
Radar picture Berlin
Radar picture from the 26jan1989 (Photo: DoD, CMSGT. DON SUTHERLAND)
Commented graphic of the radar picture
Commented graphic
Please see the picture above for an explanation of the airfields, airways etc. Texts which is unreadable on the original picture is shown as # in the graphic.
In contrast to the picture above, primary data is shown here. With it, you get a good impression of the flying activities in the southwestern part of former east germany. Clutter is shown in the Berlin area.
The primary targets show their past positions with dots. They also show a figure, ending with "M". This looks like the height of the target, but probably, "M" does not mean "meter". Instead, it could symbolize that the height is measured by the 3D radar (in contrast for being transmitted by the transponder)
To save some efforts when creating the graphic, the past position symbols are not shown dot by dot. Instead, I draw a dotted line along the chain. But it means that the speed-dependend distance between two dots can only be recognized on the photo.
Interesting are the three sequenced primary targets that are on a long left turn in the Dobeln area. On the photo, the past position symbols have great distances, so the targets seems to move at high speed.
The measurement instrument "hangs down" from the HLZ beacon. Accordingly, the textblock shows: BRG/RNG: 174/012.

Additional information

Polish Aircraft at Tempelhof

Several times, planes from Poland were hijacked or used to escape. Among others:
- 12JUN1982 Yak-12A SP-ABX Flight from Wroclaw Szymanow to Tempelhof. The aircraft was painted with red stars to confuse the air defense.
- 17SEP1983 An-2 SP-ANK The flight began on the airfield of Przylep, near Zielona Góra. On board were Jan Z. (pilot) and Mieczysław S., who both coordinated the escape. At an intermediate stop on a field near Letnica, 7 more people were picked up, including 4 childrens.
In 2005-2006 Polish TV made series of films - dramatized documentary - under the general title: "Wielkie Ucieczki" (Great Escapes), see http://www.filmpolski.pl/fp/index.php/4221384 (polish). One of the episodes describes in detail the An-2 SP-ANK escape story. The title of this episode is:"Tempelhof - Brama do wolności" (Tempelhof - Gate to freedom).
- 25OCT1983 Yak-12 SP-KLA The aircraft belonged to the Aeroclub Swidnik. The flight to Tempelhof began at the airfield of Leszno.
Polish Yak-12 SP-KLA at Tempelhof
Yak-12 in Tempelhof (October 25th, 1983) (Quelle: DoD, Thomas Farr)
- 15SEP1984 PZL-101 Gawron SP-CGF Flight from Szczecin Dąbie to Tempelhof.

FOUR TIMES THROUGH THE BERLIN WALL TO POLAND

My trips to Berlin to fly aircraft back to Poland
General procedures
Each time I was delegated to Berlin as an employee (among others pilot and flight instructor) of the Aero Club of Poland (all four aircraft were property of the Aero Club of Poland). I have preserved - until now - my personal three DDR passes through the Berlin Wall !!! (Friedrichstrasse - Checkpoint Charlie).
The normal procedure was that each time on arrival in East Berlin (three times Ostbahnhof, one time Schönefeld: Airport) I had contacted Polish Embassy (Unter den Linden) or I had been met by gentlemen from LOT Polish Airlines in East or West Berlin, then I was conveyed through the Berlin Wall (Friedrichstrasse) to the Polish Military Mission in West Berlin (Grunewald, Lassenstrasse 19-21; now the Polish Embassy HQ). The Mission was responsible for all further arrangements with American authorities at Tempelhof and gentlemen from the Mission were quite experienced owing to previous Polish landings at this airport.
My four flights
The normal route was, in principle: Tempelhof – Drewitz/Dreilinden (= Checkpoint Bravo) - VOR NUF (Nunsdorf) - NDB BKW (Beeskow) - SUI (Slubice) - .... But in practice each time the route was slightly different.
1) 16.06.1982: Jak-12A SP-ABX It appeared that there is no petrol at Tempelhof as only jet fuel was available (only turbine-engined aircraft were operating from Tempelhof) and there was not enough fuel in the plane’s tanks for the flight to Poland. So it was decided that I must make a short flight to Schönhagen for refuelling. (I had occasion to visit this big GST (Gesellschaft für Sport und Technik) centre a year before when I was a member of the Polish team that attended the World Gliding Championships in Paderborn in 1981; and on return route from Paderborn - with 4 gliders on trailers - we stayed overnight in Schönhagen.).
Now my departure from Tempelhof was delayed, as earlier that day I had to pay a visit to GST HQ (and DDR Aeroklub) in East Berlin to discuss details of the flight and refuelling. So I reached Schönhagen only in the evening and I spent the night here, to continue my flight the next day, June 17, via Beeskow - Slubice - to Zielona Góra (Przylep Airfield) = the place of An-2 hijacking in 1983. Here there was passport control and a long interrogation by a special officer; and only after that I followed to Wroclaw / Szymanow, where the plane was from.
2) 20.09.1983: An-2 SP-ANK This time it appeared the day before (September 19) that there is not enough engine oil in the plane’s oil tank. So oil (Soviet oil MS-20, widely used in the East in engines of Soviet origin) was specially transported to Tempelhof from Schönefeld in the morning on September 20th.
As concerns fuel: this time petrol was available at Tempelhof and we took 300 litres. (There were only about 100 litres in the fuel tanks. On September 17, when An-2 departed from Zielona Góra, the left fuel level warning lamp lighted up - as reported later by the pilot, Jan Z. - just after take off, the right one after crossing the DDR border; the lamps light up indicating about 80 litres in left or right tanks).
The flight route was – this time – exactly as laid down in official rules: Tempelhof – Drewitz/Dreilinden - VOR NUF (Nunsdorf) – BKW (Beeskow) - SUI (Slubice). The An-2 was not fitted with VOR (like other Polish Aero Club’s aircraft in those years), but I had identified the VOR on the ground (map and coordinates). Destination - in the Flight Plan - was Zielona Góra / Przylep, but after crossing the DDR/Polish border the weather dramatically deteriorated and we had been directed to Poznan / Lawica.
Polish aircraft An-2 SP-ANK at Berlin-Tempelhof Airport
An-2 SP-ANK: Engine check prior to departure for Poland. Crew: Janusz Krasicki (Pilot), Józef S. (flight engineer) 20.09.1983 (Source: DoD, Thomas Farr)
3) 27.10.1983: Jak-12A SP-KLA and 4) 19.09.1984: PZL-101 SP-CGF The route was slightly amended in that it was not necessary now to overfly Drewitz/Dreilinden road border crossing, so I flew: Tempelhof - NUF - BKW - SUI - EPPO (Poznan Lawica). As the Jak-12A SP-KLA was from the Aero Club in Swidnik (near Lublin), I spent the night 27/28 October in Poznan and on 28 October I continued to Warsaw Babice. With PZL-101 SP-CGF in 1984, I finished in Poznan.
To avoid possible problems with MS-20 oil, on both last trips to Berlin I brought a 3-litre plastic container with MS-20; (I used it for Jak-12A; PZL-101 was OK). But another device that appeared indispensable (I was, providently, equipped with) was an adapter (connection terminal) for compressed air; American air piping terminals did not fit Russian inlets (compressed air is used in these aircraft for starting engine and for operating flaps and wheel brakes; in many aircraft the compressed air installation is not tight and bottles must be refilled from an external source).
Air Traffic Control
I had been in radio contact with both US controllers on Tempelhof and with East German air traffic control, though in two cases this communication was not easy to establish and maintain: two of four aeroplanes were fitted with quite obsolete equipment (4-channel transceivers R-800), so there were air traffic controllers that were kind enough to tune to one of my only four frequencies !!!).
Janusz Krasicki
Continue reading: ➜ Berlin Tempelhof Airport in the 1990s and 2000s
Contents
Page 1: From the beginnings until 1945
Page 2: Tempelhof airport from 1945 to 1993
Page 3: Berlin Tempelhof Airport in the 1990s and 2000s
Page 4: Tempelhofer Feld Berlin since 2008; Links and references
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