Soviet IFF (Identification, friend or foe) systems

Below I have summarized my research and knowledge about the Soviet/Russian IFF (Identification, friend or foe) systems “Kremniy” and “Parol”. The information originates from various sources, all of which are given below (see /1/, /2/ etc.). Since the sources go into detail at different topics and are difficult to access for technical and language reasons, I compiled all the important information for a basic understanding here.

IFF systems

IFF system Kremniy-2

IFF system Parol

IFF with radar ST-68U


Description of SRO-2 und SRZO-2 in Russian language, in djvu format

/2/ (offline)
Наземный Радиолокационный Запросчик НРЗ-4П «Пароль»: Excerpt from training material for the NRZ-4P (Russian language)
Armenian forum, registration required.

/3/ (offline)
НАЗЕМНЫЙ РАДИОЛОКАЦИОННИЙ ЗАПРОСЧИК IЛ24: Study about the interrogation unit 1L24 (Russian language)

Thread: Einsatz bei NVA-LSK, Freund Feind Kennung (German language)

/5/ (offline)
Thread: Luftraumüberwachung, Nutzung Kennungsgeräte (German language)

Шпоры по военке 4 курс VII семестр: Study which includes a description of the system Parol (Russian language)

Extensive website about radar systems, describes Parol systems and the general principles of side lobe suppression (German and English language)

/8/ Raketen- und Waffentechnischer Dienst (RWD) der NVA
Website about the missile and weapons service within the command MB III of the East German forces (German language) Kremnij-2 Parol

IFF at (German language)

/10/ DV 246/0/035 "Hydroakustische, visuelle, Funkmeß- und UKW-Freund-Feind-Kennung" (Volksmarine 1986)

/11/ 1. Durchführungsanordnung vom 09.02.1990 zur Ordnung 010/9/022 - Funkmeß-Kennungsordnung (LSK/LV 1990)

/12/ E.S., U.M.: „Wer ist hier Freund, und wer ist Feind“ Fliegerrevue 10/92 (German language)

/13/ The Soviet SRO-2/KHROM IFF Transponder
Central Intelligence Agency, July 1968